Published: October 27, 2020

How we pick our products

23Products analyzed

31Hours invested

12Studies researched

87Comments collected

Are you familiar with the importance of magnesium in maintaining good health? The levels of this mineral are chronically low in a large portion of the population, in great part because of our increasingly poor diet. Unfortunately, you can’t merely pick any supplement to tackle this deficiency.

Magnesium supplementation has been a headache for nutritional experts for years. The first products that arrived on the market were insufficient to solve this issue. Luckily for us, we now have access to an invaluable resource to remedy these deficiencies: magnesium citrate supplements.

Key Facts

  • Magnesium citrate is a product that boosts the absorption of magnesium in the gastrointestinal tract and, therefore, its bioavailability.
  • It has been proven that these nutritional supplements are superior to other forms of magnesium, effectively raising the concentration of this mineral in the blood.
  • There are various factors that you have to evaluate before making your purchase, such as your dietary profile, the packaging of the article, or its overall value for money.

Our Selection: The Best Magnesium Citrate Supplements on the U.S. Market

In the following section, you will discover our very own selection of the most popular magnesium citrate products currently available out there. All have proven to be the best in terms of quality, price, safety, and effectiveness. Choose the one that suits you best and start supplementing with magnesium citrate tomorrow.

Best Magnesium Citrate Supplement: Amazon’s Choice

With hundreds of positive reviews and high ratings, this magnesium citrate supplement by Nature Made has become Amazon’s Choice in the category. With 120 capsules in the container and a recommended daily intake of two softgels, you will have two months of supplementation at your disposal. Note that this product contains beeswax and is, therefore, not vegan-friendly. $0.13 per capsule.

Best Magnesium Citrate Supplement for Allergy-Prone Individuals

Solgar’s supplement, on the other hand, is an excellent alternative if you follow a vegan diet. This non-GMO and vegan-friendly product is gluten- and dairy-free, making it the perfect one for people who have celiac disease or lactose intolerance. The recommended daily dose is two tablets per day, for one month of supplementation. $0.13 per capsule.

Best Value-For-Money Magnesium Citrate Supplement

NOW Supplements is a reputable brand in the health industry, and its magnesium citrate product offers real bang for your buck. With the most affordable price per capsule, it is vegan-friendly, kosher, and halal. Note that the serving size is three tablets per day, in divided doses and with your meals. $0.10 per capsule.

Best Magnesium Complex Supplement

If you’re looking for a blend of magnesium formulas to make the most of this mineral, this supplement by Nobi Nutrition is exactly what you need. Containing magnesium oxide and citrate, this powerful product will promote your sleep and support your heart health. The recommended daily dose is one tablet. $0.37 per capsule.

Shopping Guide: Everything You Should Know About Magnesium Citrate

Magnesium citrate is a supplement that improves the body’s absorption of a mineral that is essential for the maintenance of good health. The incredible bioavailability of this food supplement allows deficient individuals to solve this lack of magnesium safely and effectively.

Magnesium levels are chronically low in a large portion of the population, in great part because of our increasingly poor diet.
(Source: Antonio Guillem: 88672687/ 123rf.com)

What is magnesium citrate exactly?

This mineral is one of the most important for your body’s metabolism. This trace element allows for hundreds of chemical reactions that are fundamental in keeping various organs functioning properly (1). Here is a list of the main processes in which magnesium is involved (2):

  • Protein synthesis;
  • Bone and teeth formation;
  • Muscle contraction;
  • Activation of the nervous system;
  • Regulation of blood sugar levels;
  • Control of the cardiac function;
  • Correct hormonal functioning;
  • DNA stabilization;
  • Production of ATP (energy) through the metabolism of glucose;
  • Cholesterol transport;
  • Blood pressure regulation.

The importance of magnesium for your overall well-being means that you need to have an adequate intake of this mineral. In that regard, adults are recommended to have a daily intake of between 310 and 420 milligrams (1, 3). In the table below, we have indexed the main food sources of this trace element (4):

Food (100 g) Magnesium content (mg)
Bananas 27
Nuts 158
Dark chocolate (85%) 228
Unsweetened cocoa 500
Chickpeas 48
Lentils 36
Tofu 27
Miso 48
Brown rice 44
Oats 40
Pumpkin seeds 262
Quinoa 64
Orange 10
Grapefruit 9

A balanced diet is the key to obtaining enough magnesium. On the contrary, a poor diet, stress, and an excessively demanding lifestyle can create an imbalance between your magnesium intake and your needs. A lack of this mineral can lead to the following consequences (2, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9):

  • Physical fatigue;
  • Mental exhaustion;
  • Constipation;
  • Menstrual disorders;
  • Male impotence;
  • Muscle cramps;
  • Increase in LDL (bad) cholesterol;
  • Sports injuries;
  • Mineralization defects and joint pain;
  • Rapid and irregular heartbeat;
  • Elevation of blood sugar levels;
  • Weight gain;
  • Nervousness;
  • Mood changes.

If you suffer from any of the above, you may want to add a magnesium supplement to your diet. Magnesium citrate is a nutritional product that combines magnesium and citric acid to improve absorption and effectiveness. This is why it is often preferred to other formulations such as magnesium oxide (10).

What differentiates magnesium citrate from other magnesium products?

Magnesium deficiency is increasingly prevalent in the United States, with unhealthy lifestyle habits (alcohol consumption and fast food) being the main culprits. Contrary to what experts believed, the first magnesium supplements proved to be ineffective in curing this deficit (11).

So, which factors affect the absorption of these nutritional supplements? This question has been the center of many studies and discussions regarding the bioavailability – the ability of a substance to reach effective blood concentrations – of these dietary products. Here are some facts that we know today concerning the absorption of magnesium (12):

Increased absorption Reduced absorption
Low levels of magnesium in the blood High levels of magnesium in the blood
Concomitant use of inulin, mannitol, or lactulose Old age
Soluble formulations of magnesium Intestinal malabsorption disorders (e.g., Crohn’s disease or celiac disease)
Consumption of proteins Consumption of phytates and oxalates (plant compounds that prevent absorption)
Fat intake Concomitant use of cellulose
High magnesium intake in a single dose
Concomitant intake of high concentrations of calcium, iron, copper, manganese, or zinc

With the table above, you understand that influencing some of these factors can be difficult, such as controlling Crohn’s disease outbreaks. Others are not recommended (increasing fat intake) or downright impossible (changing your age). That being said, you can choose a soluble formula by opting for magnesium citrate.

The main difference between magnesium citrate and other preparations is its increased absorption. Studies have proven that the bioavailability of this preparation far exceeds that of the most representative magnesium supplement (magnesium oxide) (10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15). We have compared the two in the following table:

Magnesium citrate Magnesium oxide
Organic compound Inorganic compound
Good water solubility Virtually insoluble in water
Improved absorption (25-30%) Poor absorption (4%)
More efficient in resolving chronic magnesium deficiency Useful in reducing LDL cholesterol levels

What are the benefits of magnesium citrate?

The fantastic bioavailability of this product makes it an ideal option for individuals who have failed to integrate magnesium into their diet after suffering from deficiency-related symptoms. If you belong to one of the following groups, you may be interested in using a magnesium citrate supplement ((6, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20)):

  • Students or candidates;
  • Sports fans;
  • Adults over the age of 40;
  • Individuals suffering from bone or joint pain;
  • Persons with a tendency to suffer muscular or articular injuries;
  • Individuals under stress;
  • Individuals who consume alcohol or fast food in excess;
  • Persons following weight-loss diets;
  • Individuals with difficulties controlling their blood sugar levels.

Research has found a relationship between the normalization of blood magnesium levels and the occurrence of events favorable to cardiovascular, muscular, and mental health. In that regard, magnesium citrate supplements may contribute to improving the following aspects of your health (18, 19, 20):

  • Increased muscle mass;
  • Increased endurance and, consequently, healthy weight loss;
  • Preservation of memory and intellectual capacity;
  • Improvement of sleep quality;
  • Post-training fatigue relief;
  • Improved recovery from sports injuries;
  • Reduction of menstrual pain;
  • Improvement of libido;
  • Normalization of sexual potency in men;
  • Improvement of the glycemic profile (blood sugar levels);
  • Improvement of the lipid profile (relation between good and bad cholesterol);
  • Stress resistance;
  • Reduction of stress-induced mood swings;
  • Blood pressure normalization;
  • Maintenance of normal heart function;
  • Maintenance of skin and hair health.

Foods containing magnesium on wooden table

A balanced diet can provide you with enough magnesium for your body.
(Source: Oleksandra Naumenko: 83756930/123rf.com)

How should I use my magnesium citrate supplement?

The vast majority of these nutritional supplements come in capsules, although you can also find them in powder or liquid form. In any case, you will have no trouble with their intake. Simply follow the manufacturer’s instructions and check the following paragraphs to master the use of magnesium citrate:

  • Recommended dose: Adults should have an intake of 150 to 300 milligrams, without exceeding 350 milligrams per day (21).
  • Time of the day: Magnesium citrate supplements are more efficient if the daily dose is divided into multiple intakes throughout the day (12) – during your main meals, for instance.
  • Food benefits: Saturated fats and proteins seem to favor the absorption of this mineral, so the effectiveness of magnesium citrate could be increased when taken during meals. However, foods rich in phytates and oxalates (mainly raw vegetables and legumes) will make the absorption of this supplement more difficult (12).

Magnesium citrate can increase blood magnesium concentration almost immediately (within 24 hours of supplementation). However, you will only notice the positive effects of most supplements between sixty and ninety days after starting your intake (6, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20). Be patient, it’s worth it!

National Institute of HealthU.S. Department of Health & Human Services
“Small studies have found that magnesium in the aspartate, citrate, lactate, and chloride forms is absorbed more completely and is more bioavailable than magnesium oxide and magnesium sulfate. One study found that very high doses of zinc from supplements (142 mg/day) can interfere with magnesium absorption and disrupt the magnesium balance in the body.”

What precautions should I take while supplementing?

Fortunately, healthy people won’t suffer major complications from an accidental higher-than-normal intake of magnesium citrate. If you ingest too much of this supplement (over 350 milligrams a day), you may suffer from slight dehydration that your body will quickly compensate.

However, individuals suffering from renal, hepatic, or cardiac pathology should be cautious with these supplements. This could lead to a dangerous elevation of the magnesium levels in the blood, a phenomenon called hypermagnesemia. It is associated with the following consequences (24, 25):

  • Dizziness;
  • Muscle weakness;
  • Heart rhythm disturbances;
  • Potentially lethal arrhythmias.

To avoid hypermagnesemia, never exceed the maximum recommended intake and consult your physician regarding any chronic pathology that could influence the efficiency of supplementation. In addition, please note that magnesium citrate supplements may cause dangerous interactions with the following drugs (26):

  • Antibiotics, especially tetracyclines and quinolones;
  • Penicillamine (treatment for Wilson’s disease and rheumatoid arthritis, among others);
  • HIV treatment;
  • Eltrombopag (medication to increase platelet levels);
  • Corticoids;
  • Vitamin D.

Last but not least, remember that a specialist should monitor supplementation in young children, pregnant women, and breastfeeding women. The consumption of free-form magnesium citrate isn’t recommended for these groups. They are considered to be particularly vulnerable, and their metabolism is different from that of the rest of the population.

Elderly couple taking magnesium citrate capsule

Research has found a relationship between the normalization of blood magnesium levels and the occurrence of events favorable to cardiovascular, muscular, and mental health.
(Source: Katarzyna Białasiewicz: 97010002/ 123rf.com)

Buyer’s Guide

Before you can choose the right magnesium citrate supplement for your needs, there are various shopping criteria that you should evaluate. Keep in mind that this compound is also found in other preparations that are not useful as nutritional supplements, which is why you have to be extra careful when picking any product:

Vegan & Vegetarian Diet

Phytates and oxalates found in raw vegetables may contribute to the appearance of a magnesium deficiency (27) in individuals on plant-based diets, especially in raw vegans. If that’s your case, you will be glad to hear that there are now magnesium citrate preparations suitable for you. Make sure the product you purchase features the vegan seal of approval.

Couple taking food outdoors

Magnesium deficiency is increasingly prevalent in the United States, with unhealthy lifestyle habits being the main culprits.
(Source: Maridav: 65498783/ 123rf.com)

Allergies & Intolerances

If you are gluten intolerant or allergic to lactose, read the label of the product carefully as it may contain these allergens. Reactions to magnesium citrate are rare and generally mild (nausea and diarrhea). However, you must head to the hospital immediately if any of the following symptoms appear:

  • Vomiting;
  • Feeling of instability;
  • Reddened skin;
  • Burning sensation in your body;
  • Shortness of breath;
  • Irregular heart rhythm.

Please note that these severe allergic reactions are incredibly rare. The laxative effect of magnesium citrate supplements is much more likely to cause gastrointestinal discomfort or diarrhea. If this happens to you, you should reduce your daily intake temporarily until your body becomes accustomed to consuming magnesium citrate.

Packaging

The packaging of your magnesium citrate supplement plays a significant role in ensuring the effectiveness of the product. Never accept broken or damaged containers, and steer clear of items that aren’t properly labeled. In addition, we recommend that you choose a supplement with instructions written in English.

Dr. Will Cole, IFMCP, D.C.Senior Clinic Director & Functional Medicine Expert
“Magnesium is one of the most overlooked deficiencies in conventional medicine and one that I see often as a functional medicine practitioner. Even though it is the fourth most abundant mineral in your body and needed for over 300 biochemical reactions, between 50 and 90 percent of people don’t get enough of this nutrient.”

Expiry Date

Consumption of a magnesium citrate supplement after the expiry date labeled on the package isn’t actually dangerous. However, you have to know that its effectiveness will gradually decrease over time. In that regard, a product past its recommended use date will be less efficient (28).

Value for Money

The price of a magnesium citrate supplement ranges from 10 to 40 dollars, depending on the number of capsules it contains. The more expensive products include additional substances (such as magnesium threonate, another formulation recommended to promote intellectual performance) or are manufactured to reputable laboratories.

There are so many supplements on the American market that you can find opportunities to purchase large quantities of magnesium citrate at a lower cost. This option allows you to supplement for months at a time. That being said, you should avoid using them past their expiry date, so take this into account before buying large batches.

young woman taking magnesium citrate capsules

If you are gluten intolerant or allergic to lactose, read the label of the product carefully as it may contain these allergens.
(Source: Antonio Guillem: 89108330/ 123rf.com)

Summary

Magnesium citrate was an incredible breakthrough in the field of magnesium supplements. By increasing the rate of absorption, solubility, and bioavailability, this new formulation is a much more efficient method to increase your plasmatic levels, surpassing other preparations such as magnesium oxide.

Maintaining adequate concentrations of magnesium in your body is essential to keep up with your daily life with energy and vitality. Keep a magnesium citrate supplement handy to fight off the excesses of a sedentary and industrialized life, and get ready to feel better than ever before!

We hope that you found our guide helpful and informative. If so, feel free to leave us a comment in the section below. You can also share this article on your social media!

(Source of featured image: Serezniy: 50325903/ 123rf.com)

References (28)

1. Is It Safe To Take Expired Supplements? | HealthCentral [Internet]. [cited 2019 Sep 22].
Source

2. Golam Masum Akond ASM, Crawford H, Berthold J, Talukder ZI, Hossain K. Minerals (Zn, Fe, Ca and Mg) and antinutrient (Phytic Acid) constituents in common bean. Am J Food Technol. 2011;6(3):235–43.
Source

3. Magnesium Citrate: Side Effects, Dosages, Treatment, Interactions, Warnings [Internet]. [cited 2019 Sep 22].
Source

4. Wakai E, Ikemura K, Sugimoto H, Iwamoto T, Okuda M. Risk factors for the development of hypermagnesemia in patients prescribed magnesium oxide: a retrospective cohort study. J Pharm Heal Care Sci. 2019 Dec;5(1).
Source

5. Khan MS, Zahid S, Ishaq M. Fatal Hypermagnesemia: An acute ingestion of Epsom Salt in a patient with normal renal function. Casp J Intern Med. 2018;9(4):413–5.
Source

6. Schwalfenberg GK, Genuis SJ. The Importance of Magnesium in Clinical Healthcare. Scientifica (Cairo). 2017;2017.
Source

7. Siegel JD, Di Palma JA. Medical treatment of constipation. Vol. 18, Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery. 2005. p. 76–80.
Source

8. Magnesium — Consumer [Internet]. [cited 2019 Sep 22].
Source

9. Poikolainen K, Alho H. Magnesium treatment in alcoholics: A randomized clinical trial. Subst Abus Treat Prev Policy. 2008 Jan 25;3.
Source

10. Castellanos-Gutiérrez A, Sánchez-Pimienta TG, Carriquiry A, Da Costa THM, Ariza AC. Higher dietary magnesium intake is associated with lower body mass index, waist circumference and serum glucose in Mexican adults. Nutr J. 2018 Dec 5;17(1).
Source

11. Gullestad L, Dolva LØ, Søyland E, Manger AT, Falch D, Kjekshus J. Oral Magnesium Supplementation Improves Metabolic Variables and Muscle Strength in Alcoholics. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1992;16(5):986–90.
Source

12. Slutsky I, Abumaria N, Wu L-J, Huang C, Zhang L, Li B, et al. Enhancement of learning and memory by elevating brain magnesium. Neuron [Internet]. 2010 Jan 28 [cited 2019 Sep 5];65(2):165–77.
Source

13. Rude RK, Gruber HE. Magnesium deficiency and osteoporosis: Animal and human observations. Vol. 15, Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 2004. p. 710–6.
Source

14. Blancquaert L, Vervaet C, Derave W. Predicting and Testing Bioavailability of Magnesium Supplements. Nutrients. 2019 Jul 20;11(7):1663.
Source

15. Shechter M, Saad T, Shechter A, Koren-Morag N, Silver BB, Matetzky S. Comparison of magnesium status using X-ray dispersion analysis following magnesium oxide and magnesium citrate treatment of healthy subjects. Magnes Res [Internet]. 2012 Mar 1 [cited 2019 Sep 22];25(1):28–39.
Source

16. Walker AF, Marakis G, Christie S, Byng M. Mg citrate found more bioavailable than other Mg preparations in a randomised, double-blind study. Magnes Res [Internet]. 2003 Sep [cited 2019 Sep 18];16(3):183–91.
Source

17. Schuchardt JP, Hahn A. Intestinal Absorption and Factors Influencing Bioavailability of Magnesium- An Update. Curr Nutr Food Sci. 2017 Sep 27;13(4).
Source

18. Selected abstracts of The 11th Hungarian Magnesium Symposium. Magnes Res. 2019 Aug 2;22(2):97–111.
Source

19. Lindberg JS, Zobitz MM, Poindexter JR, Pak CY. Magnesium bioavailability from magnesium citrate and magnesium oxide. J Am Coll Nutr [Internet]. 1990 Feb [cited 2019 Sep 18];9(1):48–55.
Source

20. DiNicolantonio JJ, O’Keefe JH, Wilson W. Subclinical magnesium deficiency: A principal driver of cardiovascular disease and a public health crisis. Vol. 5, Open Heart. BMJ Publishing Group; 2018.
Source

21. Rude RK, Gruber HE. Magnesium deficiency and osteoporosis: Animal and human observations. Vol. 15, Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 2004. p. 710–6.
Source

22. Bertinato J, Xiao CW, Ratnayake WMN, Fernandez L, Lavergne C, Wood C, et al. Lower serum magnesium concentration is associated with diabetes, insulin resistance, and obesity in South Asian and white Canadian women but not men. Food Nutr Res. 2015 May 5;59.
Source

23. Al Alawi AM, Majoni SW, Falhammar H. Magnesium and Human Health: Perspectives and Research Directions. Vol. 2018, International Journal of Endocrinology. Hindawi Limited; 2018.
Source

24. Razzaque MS. Magnesium: Are we consuming enough? Vol. 10, Nutrients. MDPI AG; 2018.
Source

25. USDA Food Composition Databases [Internet]. [cited 2019 Sep 1].
Source

26. Gómez C, Sastre A. Tabla de recomendaciones (normativas y recomendaciones nutricionales SEOM). Soporte Nutr en el paciente oncológico [Internet]. 2002;317–22.
Source

27. Jahnen-Dechent W, Ketteler M. Magnesium basics. Vol. 5, CKJ: Clinical Kidney Journal. 2012.
Source

28. Schwalfenberg GK, Genuis SJ. The Importance of Magnesium in Clinical Healthcare. Scientifica (Cairo). 2017;2017.
Source

Why you can trust me?

Artículo de revista científica
Is It Safe To Take Expired Supplements? | HealthCentral [Internet]. [cited 2019 Sep 22].
Go to source
Artículo de revista científica
Golam Masum Akond ASM, Crawford H, Berthold J, Talukder ZI, Hossain K. Minerals (Zn, Fe, Ca and Mg) and antinutrient (Phytic Acid) constituents in common bean. Am J Food Technol. 2011;6(3):235–43.
Go to source
Artículo de revista científica
Magnesium Citrate: Side Effects, Dosages, Treatment, Interactions, Warnings [Internet]. [cited 2019 Sep 22].
Go to source
Artículo de revista científica
Wakai E, Ikemura K, Sugimoto H, Iwamoto T, Okuda M. Risk factors for the development of hypermagnesemia in patients prescribed magnesium oxide: a retrospective cohort study. J Pharm Heal Care Sci. 2019 Dec;5(1).
Go to source
Artículo científico de Pubmed
Khan MS, Zahid S, Ishaq M. Fatal Hypermagnesemia: An acute ingestion of Epsom Salt in a patient with normal renal function. Casp J Intern Med. 2018;9(4):413–5.
Go to source
Artículo científico de Pubmed
Schwalfenberg GK, Genuis SJ. The Importance of Magnesium in Clinical Healthcare. Scientifica (Cairo). 2017;2017.
Go to source
Artículo científico de Pubmed
Siegel JD, Di Palma JA. Medical treatment of constipation. Vol. 18, Clinics in Colon and Rectal Surgery. 2005. p. 76–80.
Go to source
Artículo de revista científica
Magnesium — Consumer [Internet]. [cited 2019 Sep 22].
Go to source
Artículo científico de Pubmed
Poikolainen K, Alho H. Magnesium treatment in alcoholics: A randomized clinical trial. Subst Abus Treat Prev Policy. 2008 Jan 25;3.
Go to source
Artículo científico de Pubmed
Castellanos-Gutiérrez A, Sánchez-Pimienta TG, Carriquiry A, Da Costa THM, Ariza AC. Higher dietary magnesium intake is associated with lower body mass index, waist circumference and serum glucose in Mexican adults. Nutr J. 2018 Dec 5;17(1).
Go to source
Artículo científico de Pubmed
Gullestad L, Dolva LØ, Søyland E, Manger AT, Falch D, Kjekshus J. Oral Magnesium Supplementation Improves Metabolic Variables and Muscle Strength in Alcoholics. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 1992;16(5):986–90.
Go to source
Artículo científico de Pubmed
Slutsky I, Abumaria N, Wu L-J, Huang C, Zhang L, Li B, et al. Enhancement of learning and memory by elevating brain magnesium. Neuron [Internet]. 2010 Jan 28 [cited 2019 Sep 5];65(2):165–77.
Go to source
Artículo científico de Pubmed
Rude RK, Gruber HE. Magnesium deficiency and osteoporosis: Animal and human observations. Vol. 15, Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 2004. p. 710–6.
Go to source
Artículo científico de Pubmed
Blancquaert L, Vervaet C, Derave W. Predicting and Testing Bioavailability of Magnesium Supplements. Nutrients. 2019 Jul 20;11(7):1663.
Go to source
Artículo científico de Pubmed
Shechter M, Saad T, Shechter A, Koren-Morag N, Silver BB, Matetzky S. Comparison of magnesium status using X-ray dispersion analysis following magnesium oxide and magnesium citrate treatment of healthy subjects. Magnes Res [Internet]. 2012 Mar 1 [cited 2019 Sep 22];25(1):28–39.
Go to source
Artículo científico de Pubmed
Walker AF, Marakis G, Christie S, Byng M. Mg citrate found more bioavailable than other Mg preparations in a randomised, double-blind study. Magnes Res [Internet]. 2003 Sep [cited 2019 Sep 18];16(3):183–91.
Go to source
Artículo científico de Pubmed
Schuchardt JP, Hahn A. Intestinal Absorption and Factors Influencing Bioavailability of Magnesium- An Update. Curr Nutr Food Sci. 2017 Sep 27;13(4).
Go to source
Artículo de revista científica
Selected abstracts of The 11th Hungarian Magnesium Symposium. Magnes Res. 2019 Aug 2;22(2):97–111.
Go to source
Artículo científico de Pubmed
Lindberg JS, Zobitz MM, Poindexter JR, Pak CY. Magnesium bioavailability from magnesium citrate and magnesium oxide. J Am Coll Nutr [Internet]. 1990 Feb [cited 2019 Sep 18];9(1):48–55.
Go to source
Artículo científico de Pubmed
DiNicolantonio JJ, O’Keefe JH, Wilson W. Subclinical magnesium deficiency: A principal driver of cardiovascular disease and a public health crisis. Vol. 5, Open Heart. BMJ Publishing Group; 2018.
Go to source
Artículo científico de Pubmed
Rude RK, Gruber HE. Magnesium deficiency and osteoporosis: Animal and human observations. Vol. 15, Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry. 2004. p. 710–6.
Go to source
Artículo científico
Bertinato J, Xiao CW, Ratnayake WMN, Fernandez L, Lavergne C, Wood C, et al. Lower serum magnesium concentration is associated with diabetes, insulin resistance, and obesity in South Asian and white Canadian women but not men. Food Nutr Res. 2015 May 5;59.
Go to source
Artículo científico
Al Alawi AM, Majoni SW, Falhammar H. Magnesium and Human Health: Perspectives and Research Directions. Vol. 2018, International Journal of Endocrinology. Hindawi Limited; 2018.
Go to source
Artículo científico
Razzaque MS. Magnesium: Are we consuming enough? Vol. 10, Nutrients. MDPI AG; 2018.
Go to source
Base de datos alimenticios
USDA Food Composition Databases [Internet]. [cited 2019 Sep 1].
Go to source
Tabla de recomendaciones nutricionales
Gómez C, Sastre A. Tabla de recomendaciones (normativas y recomendaciones nutricionales SEOM). Soporte Nutr en el paciente oncológico [Internet]. 2002;317–22.
Go to source
Artículo científico
Jahnen-Dechent W, Ketteler M. Magnesium basics. Vol. 5, CKJ: Clinical Kidney Journal. 2012.
Go to source
Artículo científico de Pubmed
Schwalfenberg GK, Genuis SJ. The Importance of Magnesium in Clinical Healthcare. Scientifica (Cairo). 2017;2017.
Go to source
Reviews