Last updated: September 6, 2020

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Are you familiar with energy drinks? Surely you have seen them in stores, if not tried one yourself. If you check its labeling, you will see that many of these products include taurine. What is it? And what does it have to do with the Redbull?

Taurine is a very abundant amino acid in our body. It is necessary for the development of newborns and fortifying the body of the elderly. Lack of taurine in your body can lead to some serious side effects. If you want to know more about this nutrient (such as the interesting origin of its name), be sure to read on!

Key Facts

  • Taurine is a non-structural amino acid, but essential for the proper functioning of the body.
  • The human body is capable of synthesizing a small amount of taurine from other amino acids. However, the main contribution of this amino acid is provided by the diet.
  • When buying taurine, you can go for vegan, hypoallergenic, easy-to-dose and always choose clearly labeled products that allow you to see their expiration date.

Our Selection: The Best Taurine Products on the U.S. Market

We have reviewed the most interesting products on the online market and created a list of products rich in taurine. In this ranking you can find supplements that contain this amino acid in different amounts. We’ve even added a few alternatives to popular energy drinks.

The Best Taurine Supplement

Supplements are great for those who are looking to take taurine in easy-to-dose capsules. These supplements by Nutricost are double strength, and contain 1000mg per capsule. They are also non-GMO, gluten free, and 3rd party tested.

Many customers praise this product as being a great natural supplement and perfect for an energy boost to get you through the work day.

The Best Taurine Powder

Perhaps you prefer to take your supplements in powder form. If this is the case, then this taurine powder from BulkSupplements is a great option for you. Taurine powder could increase energy levels, and because it is a natural antioxidant, it may help remove waste products from the body that cause fatigue. This makes it a popular supplement among athletes and bodybuilders seeking to improve their endurance.

Add it to your pre-workout smoothie, or add it to your favorite drink throughout the day.

The Best Taurine Energy Drink

 

You’ve probably already heard of Redbull, as this product has been around for some time. It is a very popular energy drink favored by athletes and busy workers. But did you know it also contains taurine?

Red Bull energy drinks contain high quality ingredients, including caffeine, taurine, B group vitamins and real sugars. Red Bull also produces a variety of energy drinks in both sugar and sugar free varieties!

Shopping Guide: Everything You Need to Know About Taurine

Taurine is one of the most abundant amino acids in our body. Although it does not have a structural function, it is of vital importance for the proper functioning of the nervous, cardiovascular and metabolic systems. This nutrient has an animal origin, and is found less in vegans than the rest of the population.

sport girl

There are different types of taurine-based supplements.
(Source: Formaggio: 32320927/ 123rf.com)

What is taurine?

Taurine is an amino acid of invaluable importance for the proper functioning of the body. Interestingly, this molecule differs from most amino acids by not acting as a “building block” to generate new proteins. The main function of taurine lies in its ability to protect body cells (1).

This amino acid is found, practically, in the entire body of humans (and other mammals). It is especially abundant in the brain, eyes, and muscles. Its work is essential for our survival, which is why many experts classify this molecule as an essential compound with a broad spectrum of action (1, 2, 3, 4):

Location Taurine action Explanation
Eyes Cytoprotection Stabilizes cell membranes. Preserves the life of the cell.
Liver Bile acid synthesis Production of the bile necessary for the digestion and absorption of food.
Heart Cytoprotection

Antithrombosis

Anti-atherosclerosis

Preserves the cardiovascular system and prevents atrophy of the heart muscle.

It opposes the formation of thrombi and cholesterol plaques in the blood vessels.

Brain Neurogenesis

Cytoprotection

Neurotransmission

It allows the development of new neurons during fetal development.

Avoid premature destruction of neurons.

Possible transmission of electrical impulses from vision and other functions.

Muscle Cytoprotection Maintains the structure of muscle fibers.
Lymphocytes (defensive system) Lymphoproliferation Possible development of new cells of the defensive system.

The truth is that many of these properties have been described in animal models. There may be slight variations in the function of this amino acid in humans. What can be confirmed is the very important function of taurine, which in addition to protecting cellular stability, has an antioxidant effect on tissues (5).

What are the consequences of a lack of taurine?

Taurine is the most abundant amino acid inside the cell. Although it can be synthesized from vitamin B6, methionine and cysteine, there are situations in which this production is not sufficient. In that case, our well-being will depend on the intake of taurine from food.

Therefore, we consider it a “conditionally essential” amino acid.

Newborns and people with chronic heart, kidney or liver conditions need an external supply of taurine. In the case of neonates, breast milk may provide this amino acid. Chronically ill patients should obtain this substance through diet or food supplements (6).

Vegetarians and vegans are also a risk group for taurine deficiency. If your diet is low in cysteine or if additional factors (such as chronic illness) are added, you may be deficient. In addition, it is under investigation whether people who are supplemented with beta alanine may see their taurine supply decreased (4).

Thus, a deficiency of this amino acid can negatively affect the health of individuals, making cells vulnerable to different attacks. In the following list we will briefly discuss the main consequences of taurine deficiency. However, note that most of these findings have been observed in animal models (6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11):

  • Vision problems: Taurine deficiency has been linked to the loss of photoreceptors (cells that are responsible for receiving light radiation and leading it to the brain). A deficiency of this amino acid could also increase the probability of suffering from glaucoma or diabetic retinopathy, serious diseases that can cause blindness.
  • Cardiovascular damage: Taurine deficiency appears to be harmful to the muscular system, causing cardiomyopathy (damage to cardiac muscle fibers), platelet abnormalities, thrombosis, and atherosclerosis.
  • Kidney damage: Taurine regulates the blood flow of the kidneys, protects them from free radicals that are produced during metabolism and allows them to form urine and regulate body pH. A taurine deficiency could prevent these tasks from being carried out successfully.
  • Mood disorders: Taurine deficiency has been linked to the appearance of psychiatric pathology, such as depression or anxiety (however, there are also studies that contradict this hypothesis (12)). It could also affect the ability to concentrate.
  • Neurological disorders: In children between the ages of eighteen months and seven years, taurine deficiency may affect intellectual and neurological development. Lack of this amino acid, which can function as a neurotransmitter, could also be related to epilepsy.
  • Metabolic mismatch: Low taurine will cause a deterioration in the function of the cells responsible for producing insulin (beta cells of the pancreas). Low levels of this amino acid have also been found among obese people, establishing a possible relationship between taurine deficiency and being overweight.
food

Taurine is found exclusively in foods of animal origin.
(Source: Prokopenko: 36061131/ 123rf.com)

What foods contain taurine?

Taurine is a nutrient with an exclusively animal origin. It can be found in meat, fish, seafood and dairy. Vegans cannot obtain it directly from their diet, having to resort to the synthesis of this amino acid from methionine and cysteine. Still, lower levels of taurine have been detected among followers of plant-based diets.

The average intake of taurine in an omnivorous person ranges from 40 to 400 milligrams (mg) daily, with no recommended daily allowance (CDR) being established at this time. The body of a young and healthy person will be able to produce, in addition, between 50 and 125 mg / day of this amino acid (12, 13).

Lacking an official CDR for taurine, your best asset is to eat a healthy diet including dairy, chicken, turkey, fish or lean meat on a daily basis (alternating between different sources). On the other hand, red or processed meats should be eaten occasionally.

Food (100 grams) Taurine content (milligrams) (13)
Yogurt 3
Milk  6
Canned tuna 42
Veal 43
Lamb 47
Pig 61
Oysters 71
White fish 150
Chicken 161
Clams 240
Turkey 300
Mussels 650

If you are vegan, you will not be able to choose from the foods from the previous list. In this case, it will be essential to maintain a healthy diet that provides a necessary (but not excessive) amount of methionine, cysteine and vitamin B6. Some nutrition experts have also suggested that vegans may benefit from the use of taurine supplements (15).

Methionine rich foods (16) Cysteine rich foods (17) Foods rich in vitamin B6 (18)
Tofu Lentils Fortified cereals
Oats Oats Sweet potatoes
Hemp protein Sunflower seeds Bananas
Peanuts Edamame (soy beans) Potatoes
Pinto beans Wheat germ Avocados
Corn Soy Pistachios

What benefits do taurine supplements have?

Taurine nutritional supplements could be used as a medicine for a large number of metabolic disorders, so its application in the medical field is valued. In the field of sports supplementation, this amino acid is also observed with interest by experts. In the following list, you will find information about its potential benefits:

Medical Benefits

  • Cardiovascular health: Taurine has been used by cardiology experts to improve the condition of patients with myocardial pathologies (such as heart failure). The results of these tests have been very promising for the moment (19).
  • Neurological Recovery: In animal models, taurine supplements appear to be able to reverse or attenuate damage to the nervous system. At the moment, it is unknown whether these findings can be replicated in humans. In healthy volunteers, caffeine and taurine energy drinks could improve attention span without improving memory (7).
  • Diabetes treatment: A possible relationship between taurine and insulin resistance (a condition related to glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes) is being studied. Taurine supplementation appears to reduce insulin resistance, although research in this area is at an early stage (8, 20, 21, 22).
  • Mood balance: Animal experiments (rats) have shown that taurine is able to lessen the symptoms of depression and anxiety. However, the differences between the brain of rodents and that of humans makes it difficult to draw firm conclusions about the results of these studies (23.24)
  • Vegan wellness: Vegans maintain lower taurine concentrations than omnivores. Supplements can be used to increase the amount of this amino acid. It has been proposed that this application could improve the cardiovascular health of vegans, although this hypothesis must be ratified by better studies  (4).
  • Alopecia treatment: An in vitro study (with cells in a laboratory setting) showed that taurine can protect hair follicles, which could slow hair loss (25).
  • Tinnitus Relief: Unpleasant hearing sensations (known as tinnitus, tinnitus, or colloquially, “buzzing”) could potentially be alleviated by taurine use. For now, this treatment has only been tested in animal models (26).
  • Thyroid balance: The antioxidant effect of taurine may contribute to reducing imbalances in the functioning of the thyroid gland, as confirmed by some experiments carried out in rats. (27).

Sport Benefits

  • Performance: When using taurine in an experiment with men trained in a 3 km race, a significant increase (1.7%) in sports performance was observed. However, scientists have not been able to determine the exact mechanism of this improvement in runners’ physical condition (28).
  • Antioxidant: One study supplemented ten male triathlon practitioners with taurine. Paradoxically, this amino acid was not able to improve the resistance of the volunteers, but it did reduce oxidative stress in their bodies. This result has led experts to wonder whether taurine could attenuate muscle damage caused by intense exercise (29).
  • Weight loss: There is a hypothesis that relates taurine to weight loss. Some scientists believe that supplements of this amino acid could reduce the synthesis of certain chemicals that stimulate appetite and make it difficult to follow diets. This study is in an initial phase and no results have been obtained yet (30).
  • Fat Burners: After conducting a study with taurine, it was found that supplementation with this amino acid slightly enhances the oxidation of fat stores. This slight fat burning effect could be useful for people who want to improve their body composition. This experiment was carried out with experienced cyclists (males) (31).

The true potential of taurine remains, for now, unexplored. Its promising effects will be confirmed in the near future. For now, we can use supplements to keep a possible deficiency of this amino acid at bay. For the treatment of more serious conditions, it is more prudent to leave our health in the hands of professionals.

doctor date

Vegans have lower than average taurine concentrations.
(Source: Guerriero: 80987824/ 123rf.com)

Buyer’s Guide

It doesn’t matter if you choose an energy drink, a fortified pre-workout or a supplement exclusively based on taurine. Our purchase criteria will give you a series of guidelines when choosing the best item with taurine, regardless of its format.

Vegan or Vegetarian Diet

Although synthetic taurine does not use animal products for its manufacture, it is possible that supplements may contain milk, eggs or fish. If you are a vegetarian or vegan, remember to check the labeling of your product very carefully. When in doubt, choose a powdered item and avoid capsules, which may contain animal-based gelatin.

man lifting weight

Our body is capable of synthesizing small amounts of taurine.
(Source: Drobot: 38794415/ 123rf.com)

Allergies

Taurine allergies are rare, but have been described after consuming large amounts of this amino acid. If you suffer a skin rash, digestive discomfort or respiratory distress after consuming this supplement, seek medical help and stop using it. Items that combine more than one ingredient can cause allergies more easily (35.36).

Also, remember to be careful if you are celiac, allergic to lactose, shellfish, eggs or soy. Carefully review the list of ingredients in your product with taurine and do not hesitate to ask the manufacturer for more information.

Dose

Normally, taurine supplementation will be done using daily doses between 500 and 1500 mg. Choose a product that clearly explains the exact amount of amino acid you’ll get in each dose. Avoid products that give confusing or unclear information (for example, that recommend taking “half a tablespoon” of powder instead of including a measuring scoop).

Summary

Taurine is an essential amino acid for the well-being of our bodies. Its lack is especially harmful to the cardiovascular system, so do not forget this nutrient, regardless of our diet.

If you are a young, healthy person who follows an omnivorous diet, taurine may only produce a slight antioxidant effect. However, if you think your production and intake of this molecule may prove insufficient in the long term, keep taurine supplements in mind. Your body will thank you!

If this guide to taurine supplements has been helpful to you, please leave a comment and share this article.

(Source of featured image: Handmadepictures: 88487513/ 123rf.com)

References (39)

1. Ripps H, Shen W. Review: Taurine: a “very essential” amino acid. Mol Vis [Internet]. 2012; 18:2673–86.
Source

2. Boyer JL. Bile formation and secretion. Compr Physiol [Internet]. 2013 Jul ;3(3):1035–78.
Source

3. Fazzino F, Obregán F, Lima L. Taurine and proliferation of lymphocytes in physically restrained rats. In: Journal of Biomedical Science [Internet]. BioMed Central; 2010 [cited 2020 Mar 15]. p. S24.
Source

4. McCarty MF. A taurine-supplemented vegan diet may blunt the contribution of neutrophil activation to acute coronary events. Med Hypotheses [Internet]. 2004 [cited 2020 Mar 15];63(3):419–25.
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5. Jong CJ, Azuma J, Schaffer S. Mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of taurine: Prevention of mitochondrial oxidant production. Amino Acids [Internet]. 2012 Jun [cited 2020 Mar 15];42(6):2223–32.
Source

6. Ripps H, Shen W. Review: Taurine: A “very essential” amino acid. Vol. 18, Molecular Vision. Emory University; 2012. p. 2673–86.
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7. Schaffer S, Kim HW. Effects and Mechanisms of Taurine as a Therapeutic Agent. Biomol Ther (Seoul) [Internet]. 2018 May 1;26(3):225–41.
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8. Lamoreaux WJ, Cuttitta C, Santora A, Blaize JF, Tachjadi J, El Idrissi A. Taurine regulates insulin release from pancreatic beta cell lines. In: Journal of Biomedical Science [Internet]. 2010. p. S11.
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9. Chesney RW, Han X, Patters AB. Taurine and the renal system. J Biomed Sci [Internet]. 2010;17(Suppl 1):S4.
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10. Murakami S. Role of taurine in the pathogenesis of obesity [Internet]. Vol. 59, Molecular Nutrition and Food Research. Wiley-VCH Verlag; 2015. p. 1353–63.
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11. Froger N, Moutsimilli L, Cadetti L, Jammoul F, Wang QP, Fan Y, et al. Taurine: The comeback of a neutraceutical in the prevention of retinal degenerations [Internet]. Vol. 41, Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. Elsevier Ltd; 2014. p. 44–63.
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12. Park J-Y, You J-S, Chang K-J. Dietary taurine intake, nutrients intake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students: a case-control study. J Biomed Sci [Internet]. 2010;17(Suppl 1):S40.
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13. Lourenço R, Camilo ME. Taurine: A conditionally essential amino acid in humans? An overview in health and disease. Nutr Hosp. 2002;17(6):262–70.
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20. Ito T, Schaffer SW, Azuma J. The potential usefulness of taurine on diabetes mellitus and its complications. Amino Acids [Internet]. 2012 May 25;42(5):1529–39.
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21. Anitha Nandhini AT, Anuradha C V. Taurine modulates kallikrein activity and glucose metabolism in insulin resistant rats. Amino Acids [Internet]. 2002;22(1):27–38.
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22. Anitha Nandhini A, Thirunavukkarasu V, Anuradha C. Taurine modifies insulin signaling enzymes in the fructose-fed insulin resistant rats. Diabetes Metab [Internet]. 2005 Sep;31(4):337–44.
Source

23. Zhang CG, Kim SJ. Taurine induces anti-anxiety by activating strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor in vivo. Ann Nutr Metab [Internet]. 2007 Sep;51(4):379–86.
Source

24. Yang P, Li X, Ni J, Tian J, Jing F, Qu C, et al. Alterations of amino acid level in depressed rat brain. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol [Internet]. 2014 Oct 1;18(5):371–6.
Source

25. Collin C, Gautier B, Gaillard O, Hallegot P, Chabane S, Bastien P, et al. Protective effects of taurine on human hair follicle grown in vitro. In: International Journal of Cosmetic Science [Internet]. 2006. p. 289–98.
Source

26. Brozoski TJ, Caspary DM, Bauer CA, Richardson BD. The effect of supplemental dietary Taurine on Tinnitus and auditory discrimination in an animal model. Hear Res [Internet]. 2010 Dec;270(1–2):71–80.
Source

27. Akande MG, Shittu M, Uchendu C, Yaqub LS. Taurine ameliorated thyroid function in rats co-administered with chlorpyrifos and lead. Vet Res Commun [Internet]. 2016 Dec 1;40(3–4):123–9.
Source

28. Bell DG, Jacobs I, Ellerington K. The Effect of Acute Taurine Ingestion on Endurance Performance in Well Trained Cyclists1. Bell DG, Jacobs I, Ellerington K. The Effect of Acute Taurine Ingestion on Endurance Performance in Well Trained Cyclists. Med Sci Sport Exerc [Internet]. 2006;33(Su. Med Sci Sport Exerc [Internet]. 2006;33(Supplement):S127.
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29. De Carvalho FG, Galan BSM, Santos PC, Pritchett K, Pfrimer K, Ferriolli E, et al. Taurine: A Potential Ergogenic Aid for Preventing Muscle Damage and Protein Catabolism and Decreasing Oxidative Stress Produced by Endurance Exercise. Front Physiol [Internet]. 2017 Sep 20 [cited 2020 Mar 17];8(SEP).
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30. Haidari F, Asadi M, Mohammadi-Asl J, Ahmadi-Angali K. Evaluation of the effect of oral taurine supplementation on fasting levels of fibroblast growth factors, β-Klotho co-receptor, some biochemical indices and body composition in obese women on a weight-loss diet: A study protocol for a double-blind, randomized. Trials [Internet]. 2019 Dec 31;20(1):315.
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31. Rutherford JA, Spriet LL, Stellingwerff T. The Effect of Acute Taurine Ingestion on Endurance Performance and Metabolism in Well-Trained Cyclists. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab [Internet]. 2010 Aug;20(4):322–9.
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32. Higgins JP, Tuttle TD, Higgins CL. Energy beverages: Content and safety. Vol. 85, Mayo Clinic Proceedings. Elsevier Ltd; 2010. p. 1033–41.
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33. Schaffer SW, Shimada K, Jong CJ, Ito T, Azuma J, Takahashi K. Effect of taurine and potential interactions with caffeine on cardiovascular function [Internet]. Vol. 46, Amino Acids. Springer-Verlag Wien; 2014. p. 1147–57.
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34. Jeukendrup AE, Randell R. Fat burners: Nutrition supplements that increase fat metabolism. Obes Rev [Internet]. 2011 Oct;12(10):841–51.
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35. Harty PS, Zabriskie HA, Erickson JL, Molling PE, Kerksick CM, Jagim AR. Multi-ingredient pre-workout supplements, safety implications, and performance outcomes: a brief review [Internet]. Vol. 15, Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition; 2018 [cited 2020 Feb 26]. p. 41.
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36. Taurine Uses, Benefits & Dosage – Drugs.com Herbal Database [Internet]. 2002 [cited 2020 Mar 7].
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37. Ratamess NA, Hoffman JR, Ross R, Shanklin M, Faigenbaum AD, Kang J. Effects of an amino acid/creatine energy supplement on the acute hormonal response to resistance exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab [Internet]. 2007 Dec [cited 2020 Mar 17];17(6):608–23.
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38. Heidari R, Jamshidzadeh A, Niknahad H, Mardani E, Ommati MM, Azarpira N, et al. Effect of taurine on chronic and acute liver injury: Focus on blood and brain ammonia. Toxicol Reports. 2015 Sep 25;3:870–9.
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39. Sun Q, Wang B, Li Y, Sun F, Li P, Xia W, et al. Taurine Supplementation Lowers Blood Pressure and Improves Vascular Function in Prehypertension: Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study. Hypertension [Internet]. 2016 Mar 1 [cited 2020 Mar 17];67(3):541–9.
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Why you can trust me?

Artículo de revisión
Ripps H, Shen W. Review: Taurine: a “very essential” amino acid. Mol Vis [Internet]. 2012; 18:2673–86.
Go to source
Artículo de revisión
Boyer JL. Bile formation and secretion. Compr Physiol [Internet]. 2013 Jul ;3(3):1035–78.
Go to source
Ensayo clínico en animales
Fazzino F, Obregán F, Lima L. Taurine and proliferation of lymphocytes in physically restrained rats. In: Journal of Biomedical Science [Internet]. BioMed Central; 2010 [cited 2020 Mar 15]. p. S24.
Go to source
Comentario científico
McCarty MF. A taurine-supplemented vegan diet may blunt the contribution of neutrophil activation to acute coronary events. Med Hypotheses [Internet]. 2004 [cited 2020 Mar 15];63(3):419–25.
Go to source
Artículo científico
Jong CJ, Azuma J, Schaffer S. Mechanism underlying the antioxidant activity of taurine: Prevention of mitochondrial oxidant production. Amino Acids [Internet]. 2012 Jun [cited 2020 Mar 15];42(6):2223–32.
Go to source
Artículo de revisión
Ripps H, Shen W. Review: Taurine: A “very essential” amino acid. Vol. 18, Molecular Vision. Emory University; 2012. p. 2673–86.
Go to source
Artículo científico
Schaffer S, Kim HW. Effects and Mechanisms of Taurine as a Therapeutic Agent. Biomol Ther (Seoul) [Internet]. 2018 May 1;26(3):225–41.
Go to source
Artículo científico
Lamoreaux WJ, Cuttitta C, Santora A, Blaize JF, Tachjadi J, El Idrissi A. Taurine regulates insulin release from pancreatic beta cell lines. In: Journal of Biomedical Science [Internet]. 2010. p. S11.
Go to source
Artículo de revisión
Chesney RW, Han X, Patters AB. Taurine and the renal system. J Biomed Sci [Internet]. 2010;17(Suppl 1):S4.
Go to source
Artículo de revisión
Murakami S. Role of taurine in the pathogenesis of obesity [Internet]. Vol. 59, Molecular Nutrition and Food Research. Wiley-VCH Verlag; 2015. p. 1353–63.
Go to source
Artículo de revisión
Froger N, Moutsimilli L, Cadetti L, Jammoul F, Wang QP, Fan Y, et al. Taurine: The comeback of a neutraceutical in the prevention of retinal degenerations [Internet]. Vol. 41, Progress in Retinal and Eye Research. Elsevier Ltd; 2014. p. 44–63.
Go to source
Ensayo clínico en humanos
Park J-Y, You J-S, Chang K-J. Dietary taurine intake, nutrients intake, dietary habits and life stress by depression in Korean female college students: a case-control study. J Biomed Sci [Internet]. 2010;17(Suppl 1):S40.
Go to source
Artículo de revisión
Lourenço R, Camilo ME. Taurine: A conditionally essential amino acid in humans? An overview in health and disease. Nutr Hosp. 2002;17(6):262–70.
Go to source
Guía clínica
SENC : J. Aranceta Bartrina, V. Arija Val, E. Maíz Aldalur, E. Martínez de Victoria Muñoz, R. M. Ortega Anta, C. Pérez-Rodrigo, J. Quiles Izquierdo, A. Rodríguez Martín, B. Román Viñas, G. Salvador i Castell, J. A. Tur Marí, G. Varela Moreiras LSM, Resumen. Guías alimentarias para la población española. La nueva pirámide de la alimentación saludable elaborada por el Grupo Colaborativo de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Comunitaria. Nutr Hosp [Internet]. 2016;33(8):1–48.
Go to source
Recomendación oficial
Rogerson D. Vegan diets: Practical advice for athletes and exercisers. Vol. 14, Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. BioMed Central Ltd.; 2017. p. 1–15.
Go to source
Web oficial
200 Vegan Foods Highest in Methionine [Internet].
Go to source
Web oficial
200 Vegan Foods Highest in Cystine [Internet].
Go to source
Web oficial
200 Vegan Foods Highest in Vitamin B6 [Internet].
Go to source
Artículo de revisión
Xu Y-J, Arneja AS, Tappia PS, Dhalla NS. The potential health benefits of taurine in cardiovascular disease. Exp Clin Cardiol [Internet]. 2008;13(2):57–65.
Go to source
Artículo de revisión
Ito T, Schaffer SW, Azuma J. The potential usefulness of taurine on diabetes mellitus and its complications. Amino Acids [Internet]. 2012 May 25;42(5):1529–39.
Go to source
Ensayo clínico en animales
Anitha Nandhini AT, Anuradha C V. Taurine modulates kallikrein activity and glucose metabolism in insulin resistant rats. Amino Acids [Internet]. 2002;22(1):27–38.
Go to source
Ensayo clínico en animales
Anitha Nandhini A, Thirunavukkarasu V, Anuradha C. Taurine modifies insulin signaling enzymes in the fructose-fed insulin resistant rats. Diabetes Metab [Internet]. 2005 Sep;31(4):337–44.
Go to source
Ensayo clínico en animales
Zhang CG, Kim SJ. Taurine induces anti-anxiety by activating strychnine-sensitive glycine receptor in vivo. Ann Nutr Metab [Internet]. 2007 Sep;51(4):379–86.
Go to source
Ensayo clínico en animales
Yang P, Li X, Ni J, Tian J, Jing F, Qu C, et al. Alterations of amino acid level in depressed rat brain. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol [Internet]. 2014 Oct 1;18(5):371–6.
Go to source
Ensayo clínico in vitro
Collin C, Gautier B, Gaillard O, Hallegot P, Chabane S, Bastien P, et al. Protective effects of taurine on human hair follicle grown in vitro. In: International Journal of Cosmetic Science [Internet]. 2006. p. 289–98.
Go to source
Ensayo clínico en animales
Brozoski TJ, Caspary DM, Bauer CA, Richardson BD. The effect of supplemental dietary Taurine on Tinnitus and auditory discrimination in an animal model. Hear Res [Internet]. 2010 Dec;270(1–2):71–80.
Go to source
Ensayo clínico en animales
Akande MG, Shittu M, Uchendu C, Yaqub LS. Taurine ameliorated thyroid function in rats co-administered with chlorpyrifos and lead. Vet Res Commun [Internet]. 2016 Dec 1;40(3–4):123–9.
Go to source
Ensayo clínico en humanos
Bell DG, Jacobs I, Ellerington K. The Effect of Acute Taurine Ingestion on Endurance Performance in Well Trained Cyclists1. Bell DG, Jacobs I, Ellerington K. The Effect of Acute Taurine Ingestion on Endurance Performance in Well Trained Cyclists. Med Sci Sport Exerc [Internet]. 2006;33(Su. Med Sci Sport Exerc [Internet]. 2006;33(Supplement):S127.
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Ensayo clínico en humanos
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Proyecto de ensayo clínico en humanos
Haidari F, Asadi M, Mohammadi-Asl J, Ahmadi-Angali K. Evaluation of the effect of oral taurine supplementation on fasting levels of fibroblast growth factors, β-Klotho co-receptor, some biochemical indices and body composition in obese women on a weight-loss diet: A study protocol for a double-blind, randomized. Trials [Internet]. 2019 Dec 31;20(1):315.
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Ensayo clínico en humanos
Rutherford JA, Spriet LL, Stellingwerff T. The Effect of Acute Taurine Ingestion on Endurance Performance and Metabolism in Well-Trained Cyclists. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab [Internet]. 2010 Aug;20(4):322–9.
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Estudio científico
Higgins JP, Tuttle TD, Higgins CL. Energy beverages: Content and safety. Vol. 85, Mayo Clinic Proceedings. Elsevier Ltd; 2010. p. 1033–41.
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Estudio científico
Schaffer SW, Shimada K, Jong CJ, Ito T, Azuma J, Takahashi K. Effect of taurine and potential interactions with caffeine on cardiovascular function [Internet]. Vol. 46, Amino Acids. Springer-Verlag Wien; 2014. p. 1147–57.
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Estudio científico
Jeukendrup AE, Randell R. Fat burners: Nutrition supplements that increase fat metabolism. Obes Rev [Internet]. 2011 Oct;12(10):841–51.
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Artículo de revisión
Harty PS, Zabriskie HA, Erickson JL, Molling PE, Kerksick CM, Jagim AR. Multi-ingredient pre-workout supplements, safety implications, and performance outcomes: a brief review [Internet]. Vol. 15, Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition; 2018 [cited 2020 Feb 26]. p. 41.
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Web oficial
Taurine Uses, Benefits & Dosage – Drugs.com Herbal Database [Internet]. 2002 [cited 2020 Mar 7].
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Ensayo clínico
Ratamess NA, Hoffman JR, Ross R, Shanklin M, Faigenbaum AD, Kang J. Effects of an amino acid/creatine energy supplement on the acute hormonal response to resistance exercise. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab [Internet]. 2007 Dec [cited 2020 Mar 17];17(6):608–23.
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Ensayo clínico
Heidari R, Jamshidzadeh A, Niknahad H, Mardani E, Ommati MM, Azarpira N, et al. Effect of taurine on chronic and acute liver injury: Focus on blood and brain ammonia. Toxicol Reports. 2015 Sep 25;3:870–9.
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Ensayo clínico
Sun Q, Wang B, Li Y, Sun F, Li P, Xia W, et al. Taurine Supplementation Lowers Blood Pressure and Improves Vascular Function in Prehypertension: Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study. Hypertension [Internet]. 2016 Mar 1 [cited 2020 Mar 17];67(3):541–9.
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